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The Portrait Representation Project

THE PORTRAIT REPRESENTATION PROJECT

The Portrait Representation Project

Letter From the Writer

In the spring of 2016, senior editors Noah Jodice and Alberto de la Rosa conceptualized a project examining racial and gender representation in portraiture on the Danforth Campus. The project, called the Portrait Representation Project, involved Student Life reporters conducting a campus-wide review of all portraits hanging in public spaces at Washington University.

After over two years of hibernation on servers and in Google drives, the Portrait Project was restarted last semester. Student Life staff conducted interviews with administrators, faculty and portrait artists about how the faces on the walls reflect (or don’t) our institutional history.

Across dozens of buildings, reporters recorded demographic information about the individuals pictured, as well as the name of the artist and the date of commission. Reporters followed up with additional background research on the individuals in the painting, researching their individual achievements, affiliation with the University and the amount of money donated (where relevant). The racial and gender identities noted by reporters were recorded based on how the individual presented, but our background research confirmed pronouns for those who were “out,” and in many cases, racial identities.

We recognize the difficulty and potentially problematic practice of identifying someone’s racial or gender identities based on how they may present, which is why we use the term “presenting” when discussing race and gender in our reporting. Using this approach allowed us to examine the issue of race, gender and class in a physical environment. The vast majority of our subjects were white-passing, reflecting our institutional history which has been wrought with tension and debate as students, faculty and staff of all backgrounds fight for visibility.

To date, we’ve collected data on over 90 portraits. Our data reveals who is represented among the university’s donors, alumni, former administrators and faculty and, more importantly, who isn’t represented. This data collection is intended to be a living database that will change and grow as new portraits are added. More importantly, we hope this project moves the needle forward in reflecting the diversity of our University community.

Thank you for your continued readership, and welcome to the Portrait Representation Project.


Chalaun Lomax
Former Director of Diversity Initiatives

Article

The Portrait Representation Project is a staff-wide initiative that focuses on the representation of marginalized communities on Washington University’s campus. Student Life staff conducted a campus-wide review of portraits hanging in the Danforth campus, as well as interviews with administrators, faculty and portrait artists. Thus far, we’ve collected data on over 90 portraits. This data reveals who is represented among the university’s donors, alumni, former administrators and faculty and, more importantly, who isn’t represented.

What follows is a series of interviews that reveal the artistic importance of portraiture, the process of commissioning a portrait, and ideas on how to reflect diversity in a physical space.

Portrait Project Graphic Graphic by Brandon Wilburn

THE SOCIAL POWER OF PORTRAITS

“The DUC was sort of the moment when I started noticing the ubiquity of heterosexual couples in portraits,” Professor of History and Women, Gender and Sexuality Studies Andrea Friedman said.

Built in 2008, the Danforth University Center is the hub of student activities on campus. It is also home to 11 portraits, one of the highest amounts of any building on campus. At the time this interview was conducted, Professor Friedman was teaching an introductory course on sexuality studies. One of her assignments required students to examine portraits in the DUC and look for female representation.

What students found – and what our data supports – is that women are most often presented alongside their husbands in portraiture.

“It was almost all a standing man and a sitting woman where the man is somehow touching her. That's a really common kind of stance in those portraits. It seems to me that the kind of male-female couple has become more common in recent years,” Professor Friedman said.

To Professor Friedman, this sitting reflects the lasting legacies of the gender wage gap and other ways in which women are seen as dependent on their husband’s income.

“There’s always social power, or economic power or political power, embedded in those monuments [to a past] and I think portraits also do the same thing even if that’s... maybe that’s the intention, maybe it isn’t,” Professor Friedman said.

Professor Friedman recalled a faculty meeting held in Brookings Hall, in a special room where the portraits of past chancellors line the wood-paneled walls.

“They’re all white men. That reminds me of how much this institution has been shaped by the narrow range of people that have run it over the years,” Professor Friedman said.

Portraits are a reflection of institutional history, one that is male-dominated and majority-white, much like many of our peer institutions nationwide.

“In portraiture, in certain ways we create monuments to a past,” Professor Friedman said. “That’s not necessarily the ways that people think about them in their everyday lives. We think that we're just remembering people who mattered in the world.”

Professor Friedman acknowledged the effect that this can have on students, faculty and staff.

“If you don’t see your experience reflected, then you feel either insignificant within the broader institution, or you just don’t feel like you belong because it doesn’t seem like you have any social existence,” Professor Friedman said.

Assistant Professor of Education Michelle Purdy has spent a significant portion of her life witnessing this dynamic. Purdy is an alumna of the University, having served as Student Union President during the 2000-2001 school year. She has also engaged with this topic in her new book, Transforming The Elite: Black Students and the Desegregation of Private Schools, which focuses on the first few students to integrate The Westminster Schools in Atlanta, Georgia. Though her work is concentrated on K-12 education, Purdy notices parallels in higher education.

“Part of what we're telling students for whom these institutions were not built is that you're welcome here and that you can thrive here and that we want you here,” Purdy said.

However, the limited number of underrepresented staff, faculty and alumni represented in portraiture contradicts this message.

“What you see every day also communicates to you who's valued, and can communicate who's not. It might lead you to think about who maybe is not valued in the same ways as other people,” Purdy said.

In Purdy’s view, portraiture is not the only component of a university’s “visual narrative.” She also cites public art, such as the Olympic Rings and the statute of George Washington outside of Olin Library, as underscoring the University’s interests and priorities.

Purdy also associates the physical manifestation of diversity with permanent student space. During her time as an undergraduate, the Women’s Building used to be the locus of student life. Following the construction of the DUC in 2008, many organizations relocated, and a significant amount of student activity transitioned away from the Women’s Building.

As a result, some students felt that affinity spaces occupy the margins of the University. Purdy acknowledged these frustrations.

“Unless you go into those particular spaces or maybe into the CDI, it's kind of like the notions of diversity are just relegated to ‘the spaces for diversity’ but then not infused throughout the university,” Purdy said.

Both Purdy and Professor Friedman discussed the irregularity of decorations between departments and academic buildings. Both Seigle and Busch halls are sparsely decorated. Faculty office doors are the site of most posters and other artwork, but the walls remain mostly bare. This contrasts with buildings like McMillan Hall, home to several humanities departments including WGSS and AFAS which boast posters, photographs and the work of students and faculty on its walls.

According to Professor Friedman, Busch Hall used to have portraits of former faculty members in the main faculty conference room prior to its renovation several years ago. The portraits of three former department chairs, all white men, hung on the wall. Professor Friedman recalls some faculty members mutually agreeing to remove the portraits to reflect the department’s modernity.

“At some point we decided, ‘we don’t want those anymore,’ because it didn’t feel inclusive,” Professor Friedman said.

IN THE ARTIST’S WORDS

Portraiture is a tradition that artist Ying-he Liu sees lasting through the ages.

“My feeling is, as long as there are humans existing, this desire for immortalized beauty and importance is going to exist,” Liu said.

Liu painted the commissioned portraits of Mildred Lane Kemper and Sam and Marilyn Fox. She is originally from Shanghai, China and has a deep appreciation for portraiture.

“I’m glad there is still this demand for artists like me to do something in this traditional vein. As an artist, I am just so grateful for the interest and the demand to keep this manner of work alive,” Liu said.

In 2005, Liu was contacted through the gallery that represents her by a member of the Kemper Family. Shortly thereafter, she was also selected to paint a portrait of the Fox’s. The process of painting a portrait varies for artists. For Liu, it takes several months to a year.

Liu thoroughly enjoyed the process, and developed a relationship with the Foxs while conducting the initial sketches and photo sittings.

Mildred Lane Kemper’s portrait was slightly more challenging, since it was a posthumous commission. The Kemper Family selected some photos for Ms. Liu to use, but they weren’t suitable for a formal portrait. Liu pieced together separate photos to compose a full image of Kemper.

Despite painting commissioned portraits, Liu does not feel stifled artistically.

“The nature of this commission work is that you help the subject to achieve some kind of a statement about themselves. Also it’s more of a commemorative effort,” Liu said.

Liu’s definition of success is satisfaction from both herself and her client.

“It has to be at a level of execution that I think it measures up to my name and my reputation. It’s absolutely the best that I can do with this God-given talent,” Liu said. “The response from viewers, very often they’ll say that my painting exceeded their expectations. That’s what I consider success.”

COMMISSIONING A PORTRAIT

As far as the process of commissioning portraits itself goes, Vice Chancellor for Public Affairs Jill Friedman notes that the process is highly individualized.

Vice-Chancellor Friedman acknowledged this irregularity, stating that the University’s decentralized structure means that no one individual or office determines what can or cannot be placed on the walls of academic buildings.

“You’ve gotten to a very important point, which is it’s multi-layered. There isn’t any one specific answer,” Vice-Chancellor Friedman said.

The portraits we documented are categorized in two ways: honorary and donor portraits. Donor portraits are more widely recognized as commemorating “friends” of the University who have made major donations to departments, programs and major capital projects. Those who are the namesakes of buildings or large spaces on campus, such as Tisch Commons and Hillman Hall, are typically recognized with a commissioned portrait. For more recent donations, some donors are photographed.

According to Vice-Chancellor Friedman, the location of a donor portrait relates to the nature of an individual’s donation.

“A donor portrait will be hung in proximity to where the impact of their donation is felt,” Vice-Chancellor Friedman said.

The mechanics of a donation, Vice-Chancellor Friedman says, are unique and highly individualized. It has no impact on the artistic rendering of the donor.

“The main concentration of decisions are really around what is inspiring and motivating someone to give, where they would like to see their investment made, what impact they’re hoping to make as a result, and what level they’d like to do it at,” Vice-Chancellor Friedman said.

Honorary portraits are usually those of current and former faculty members, as well as students. The portraits are commissioned in honor of the individual, following a donation named in their honor. This is the case for the portrait of Gerald Early, the Merle Kling Professor of Modern Letters.

THE EARLY CASE

Early arrived at Washington University in 1982 as an instructor in Black Studies, later becoming a tenured professor of English and African and African-American Studies. He has served in numerous roles at the University and is an award-winning essayist and anthologist. Early even has a star on the St. Louis Walk of Fame. Early is closely associated with the Department of African and African-American Studies, where he served as two-time director (when AFAS was still a program) and is currently the department chair.

As an undergraduate at the University of Pennsylvania, Early didn’t give much consideration to portraits. He was simply focused on getting his education.

It wasn’t until his own portrait was commissioned that he gave greater consideration to the significance of a portrait. A gift to the Olin Library’s special collections led Early to be honored by a commissioned portrait. Initially, he said no.

“I saw it as an honor, but in some ways I also saw it a little bit as a burden,” Early said. “Having your image up there like that it meant that you’re representing yourself. You're representing the institution in some way. You're representing the minority presence in some way.”

After much internal debate, Early eventually agreed to the portrait, which was unveiled in a ceremony on September 5, 2007.

“I knew that there weren't a lot portraits of black people on this campus,” Early said. “In the end, of course, I did consent to it because I understood that being a minority and having my portrait done was important and that it would be important to other minority people here.”

Sam Fox Associate Professor Jamie Adams was Early’s portrait artist. He used Early’s own writings about African-American history and boxing as an inspiration for how to compose the portrait.

“I was thinking to myself that, you know, Gerald is a fighter for justice. And his stage, though, is a very different one. It's not the boxing ring where he distinguishes himself. It's in academia. It's in writing,” Adams said. “What I decided to do was to have Gerald portrayed in his office that in such a way that it sort of suggested that he was as a boxer between the rounds.”

Early was instructed to sit on a stool in his office behind his desk, surrounded by his papers. Early’s sleeves are rolled up “a little higher than usual,” as if he were resting between the rounds, according to Adams.

For Adams, painting a portrait is more than just a compilation of sketches and hundreds of photographs. It is about developing a relationship between himself and his subject.

“I have to engage the subject through my own eyes, through my own means and understanding,” Adams said. “I certainly reflect upon all the inputs that I'm given, but in the end, it’s my interpretation.”

The portrait still makes Early feel slightly uncomfortable, and to this day he avoids his portrait, located on the second floor of Olin Library.

“You don't want people to be thinking that you got a big ego and you're going there to see yourself and so forth. It's funny,” Early said. “I do go over to the library fairly often, but I just don't ever go on that floor.”

Early acknowledges that most students think that the individuals in portraits are deceased, and for the most part, he’s correct. After walking out of Olin Library one day, a student stopped in his tracks, shocked to see Professor Early.

“I remember one time I was...coming to the library. I ran into a student coming the other way and he stopped and he said to me, ‘You're alive!’ And I just thought that was really funny,” Early said.

LOOKING AHEAD

The question remains: How can we ensure that the walls of our University reflect both our institutional history and our future?

Recognizing donors is a proven way to achieve this. Honoring the individuals who have provided financial assistance and long-term support for the University is vital, according to Vice-Chancellor Friedman.

“What is it as an institution that we can do to prominently and visibly honor and recognize the fact that someone has given a lot of themselves? I see portraiture as one opportunity that we have as recognizing someone...and their generosity,” Vice-Chancellor Friedman said.

Another way is to honor the “firsts,” or the people who trailblazed a path for other individuals of color, of different national origin and of different gender identities to join the Washington University community.

Rudolph Clay, Head of Library Diversity Initiatives & Outreach at Olin Library, noted the Washington University Trailblazers, an initiative that recognizes the achievements of African-American faculty and staff through an annual awards ceremony. This commemoration has occurred for the past four years, according to Clay.

The Trailblazers, and other forms of recognition, are an important way of ensuring that these individuals are preserved in Washington University’s institutional memory, according to Clay.

“After a while, once they leave, there's not a record of it except for people that remember,” Clay said.

The School of Law recently began a promotional campaign highlighting gender diversity within the school. Banners hanging along walkways on the Danforth Campus feature the slogan “WashULaw: Admitting Women for 150 Years,” a nod to Phoebe Couzins, the first female graduate of the University and one of the first women in the United States to graduate from a law school.

Washington University’s numerous scholars programs provide additional examples of what this commemoration could look like. The McLeod, Rodriguez and Ervin Scholars Programs are prime examples of recognizing individuals from underrepresented backgrounds who made a large impact on the University.

James McLeod, former Dean and Vice Chancellor for Students, John B. Ervin, the first African American dean at the University and Washington University alumna Annika Rodriguez are all program namesakes.

Out of the three, McLeod is the only one to have a commissioned portrait on campus.

Professor Purdy acknowledged the importance that visual recognition carries in educational spaces.

“There's a variety of ways in which people get honored in universities,” Purdy said. “Especially in the culture in which we live today, the visual seems to be very, very important.”

Many of the institutional advancements in diversity have taken place within the last few decades, and portraits are usually commissioned in the later stages of an individual’s career.

In her interview, Professor Friedman posed an important question.

“How in different spaces is the university crafting its relationship between its past and its present? And for what different audiences?” Professor Friedman said.

The answer? Photography.

The DUC and Olin Library are two primary examples of how photographs can be used to reflect the diversity of our University community. Professor Andrea Friedman herself is pictured alongside two of her former students, Reuben Forman and Jordan Victorian, in the corridor next to the Career Center.

In Olin, there are numerous recent photographs featuring students and alumni of diverse backgrounds, including Jasmine Brown and Camille Borders, the University’s most recent Rhodes Scholars and a group of alumni who were a part of the 1968 Brookings Occupation.

Rudolph Clay, Head of Library Diversity Initiatives & Outreach at Olin Library, noted a recent push from the library’s administration to feature more images of students. The library has added at least 14 new pictures of students.

“We were kind of looking at this with mainly within the library for more images of students of color,” Clay said. “And [in] the library itself, there are, there's not an adequate representations of students of color. Actually, we didn't have that many student pictures at all. So one of the things we are slowly doing is trying to... make sure that when you're adding them that all students were represented.”

At the time of the interview, Olin Library staff added 14 new images of students.

The Data

NameRace/EthnicityGenderDonor (Y/N)Position TitleArtistYear Installed/DedicatedNotes
Fred L. KuhlmannWhiteMaleYDonor, AlumnusGilbert Early, 1995N/AKuhlmann received his bachelor's and law degrees from the University by 1938. He was the Vice Chairman of the Board of Directors at Anheuser-Busch Companies, Inc. He was also the President of the St. Louis Cardinals from 1990-1991. Kuhlmann provided a gift to the building fund of Anheuser-Busch Hall. He also received the Distinguished Alumni Award from the University in 1987.  
Janite LeeAsianFemaleYDonorGilbert Early, 1997N/AImmigrated from Korea. Lee won the lottery in 1993 and was given $18 million in winnings. She donated to Washington University School of Law, and has a reading room named in her honor.
Eugene A. and Adlyne FreundWhiteMale and Female (couple)YesDonorTito GayN/AThe law library was named in their honor. . 
Whitney and Jane Freund HarrisWhiteMale and Female (couple)YesDonorTito GayN/AWhitney was a prosecutor at the Nuremberg Trials. The Whitney R. Harris World Law Institute is named in his honor. The Harris Award, an annual community service award given to a husband-wife pair, is named in their honor. The award was established in 2000 as part of a bequest made by Jane Freund Harris. 
W.I. Hadley GriffinWhiteMaleYLLB '47, LLD '90Gilbert Early, 1996N/AAlumnus of the School of Law, former Chair of the Board of Trustees. 
George and Carol BauerWhiteMale and Female (couple)YesDonor, AlumniPhoto2012 
Arthur Holly ComptonWhiteMaleNProfessor, Former ChancellorUnsure1966Compton Laboratory is named in his honor. In 1920, Compton joined the faculty at Washington University. He was a professor of physics and later served as the chair of the physics department. While at the University, he discovered an x-ray scattering effect (known as the "Compton effect") which won him the 1927 Nobel Prize in Physics. He directed the Metallurgical Lab at the Manhattan Project from 1942-1945 at the University of Chicago. 
Samuel CupplesWhiteMaleYesDonorUnsure1905?Cupples was a business partner of Robert S. Brookings and a woodenware merchant in St. Louis. In 1900, Cupples turned over his company's assets to Washington University, providing $4 million for the construction of Cupples I, Cupples II, and Cupples Engineering Building (has since been torn down). He also served on the Board of Trustees from 1881-1912
Guido WeissWhiteMaleNElinor Anheuser Professor of MathematicsGyori Lagos1995Portrait bust. Weiss is a Hungarian-American professor of mathematics. He joined the WUSTL faculty in 1961 and served as the chair of the mathematics department from 1967-1970. He won the Chauvenet Prize in 1967 for his book Harmonic Analysis and became a fellow of the American Mathematical Society in 2013. 
Ronald and Karen RettnerWhiteMale and Female (couple)YDonor, AlumniN/AN/ARonald is an alumnus of the University (BA '72). The Ronald and Karen Rettner Gallery -- inside of Lab Sci -- is named in their honor. The gallery honors the Los Alamos Six -- a group of WUSTL chemistry professors who worked on the Manhattan Project. 
Arthur Holly ComptonWhiteMaleNProfessor, Former ChancellorPhotographN/AIn 1920, Compton joined the faculty at Washington University. He was a professor of physics and later served as the chair of the physics department. While at the University,  he discovered an x-ray scattering effect (known as the "Compton effect") which won him the 1927 Nobel Prize in Physics. He directed the Metallurgical Lab at the Manhattan Project from 1942-1945 at the University of Chicago. Compton eventually returned to WUSTL to serve as the Chancellor from 1945-1953. He held the title of Distinguished Service Professor of Natural Philosophy from 1945 until his death in 1962. 
Roland G. QuestWhiteMaleYDonorM. Early (maybe)N/AProvided funds, through the Roland Quest Memorial Trust, to restore the organ in Graham Chapel
Stanley SpectorWhiteMaleNProfessorV. WangUnsureSpector was the founder and chair of the Department of Chinese and Japanese (now East Asian Languages and Cultures) from 1962-1973. He held numerous other positions including Chair of the Committee on Asian Studies and Director of International Studies. 
Charles F. KnightWhiteMaleYesDonorGordon Annie Shikles2001Along with his wife Joanne, Charles made many contributions to the Olin Business School and School of Medicine. Charles was the CEO at Emerson Electric Co. for 27 years. The Knights provided key support that helped construct the Siteman Cancer Center. In addition to the Knight Center being named in their honor, Charles also served as a longtime member of the Board of Trustees and the Olin National Council. He has won numerous awards for his service and philanthropy. The Knights have donated at least $15 million to the University.
unsure Male    executive programs suite-unable to get access
Robert and Barbara FrickWhiteMale and Female (couple)YesDonor, AlumniPhotoN/ARobert is an alumnus of the University, earning his BS and MBA in 1960 ad 1962, respectively. The couple has donated at least $7 million to support the Olin Business School. Robert has served on the Board of Trustees and Olin Business School National Cabinet. He has also received numerous Alumni Awards from the University. Barbara is a former teacher who worked with Bob to launch a real estate developer operation in Sacramento. They were also partners in in K.E.S. Management Co., which worked to create quality housing for low- to moderate-income residents in the Bay Area.
Charles F. and Joanne KnightWhiteMale and Female (couple)YesDonorPhotoMay 2, 2014Along with his wife Joanne, Charles made many contributions to the Olin Business School and School of Medicine. Charles was the CEO at Emerson Electric Co. for 27 years. The Knights provided key support that helped construct the Siteman Cancer Center. In addition to the Knight Center being named in their honor, Charles also served as a longtime member of the Board of Trustees and the Olin National Council. He has won numerous awards for his service and philanthropy. The Knights have donated at least $15 million to the University. 
Frank and Florence Busch Male and FemaleY   Endowed professorship in the School of Art named in their honor.
Arthur WahlWhiteMaleNProfessorGilbert EarlyN/AWahl was the Henry V. Farr Professor of Radiochemistry from 1952 until his death in 1983. He was a group leader in the chemistry division of the Manhattan Project from 1943-46. While there, he developed a plutonium purification method that is still used today. Wahl was also well-known for proving the existence of element 94 on the periodic table, and was part of a team at Berkeley that discovered plutonium. 
Joseph KennedyWhiteMaleNProfessorGilbert EarlyN/AServed as chair of the Chemistry department at WUSTL. Kennedy was also the head of chemistry and metallurgy in the Manhattan Project. At age 26, he was awarded U.S. Army Medal of Merit. 
Lindsay HelmholzWhiteMaleNProfessorGilbert EarlyN/AProfessor of Chemistry. His post-war research with graduate student Max Wolfsberg created Wolfsberg-Helmholz theory. Referred to as "the gentleman-scientist." One of several WUSTL chemistry professors who worked on the Manhattan Project before joining the faculty. 
David LipkinWhiteMaleNProfessorGilbert EarlyN/ALipkin was the Eliot Professor Emeritus of Chemistry. He served as the chair of the department of Chemistry from 1964-1971 before retiring in 1980. Before joining the faculty, Lipkin worked on the Manhattan Project in Los Alamos, New Mexico. He made important contributions to the atomic bomb at Nagasaki, creating a nickel-coated protective skin to ensure that it didn't corrode before reaching the Pacific. He was also the first to synthesize cyclic AMP. 
Samuel WeissmanWhiteMaleNProfessorGilbert EarlyN/AWeissman was a professor of Chemistry at Washington University. Prior to joining the faculty, he worked on the Manhattan Project in Los Alamos, New Mexico. After arriving at  WUSTL in 1946, he pioneered the usage of electron spin resonance in chemistry. Weissman was elected a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1966 and was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1966. 
Herbert PotratzWhiteMaleNProfessorGilbert Early2005Professor of Chemistry. Potratz joined the Manhattan Project as a research associate in 1942. He eventually worked his way up to section chief of the Chemistry Division. He later joined the chemistry faculty at WUSTL. 
Patty Jo WatsonWhiteFemaleNDistinguished University Professor EmeritaGilbert Early, 2003N/AWatson is an archaeologist in the Department of Anthropology. She received her PhD from the University of Chicago and devoted her career to studying the archaeology of the Ancient Near East and North America. She was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1988 and received numerous other teaching awards. Watson served as the chair of the Anthropology department twice. She retired in 2004. 
John MorrisWhiteMaleNProfessor of English Literature, PoetPatrick Schuchard1997Much of his work was published posthumously, was a member of the distinguished poets and writers at the University from the 60's-90's
John M. OlinWhiteMaleY, $1mil in 1956Former member of the Board of TrusteesWilliam F. Draper1967$1 million donation used for construction of Olin Library of which he is the namesake, former President of Olin Industries and chairman of Olin Mathieson Chemical Corporation
Jarvis ThurstonWhiteMaleNProfessor of English, Former chair of the Department of EnglishMarion Miller1993Largely responsible for creating the Writing Program at the University, co-founded Perspectives magazine with poet (and wife) Mona Van Duyn, helped discover and attract top-tier writing talent to the University 
Mona Van DuynWhiteFemaleNLecturer, Poet, WriterMarion Miller1993First female U.S. Poet Laureate (1992-93), National Book Award Winner (1971), Pulitzer Prize Winner (1991), Co-founded Perspectives magazine with Professor of English Jarvis Thurston (who was also her husband). Van Duyn and Thurston were largely responsible for attracting top-tier writing talent to the University over the course of their tenure 
Howard NemerovWhiteMaleNProfessor, Poet, WriterMarion Miller1991Two-time U.S. Poet Laureate, winner of the 1968 Guggenheim Fellowship, 1978 National Book Award, and 1978 Pulitzer Prize in Poetry. Namesake of Nemerov Scholars and Nemerov House
James MerrillWhiteMaleNPoet, Visiting Hirst Professor in the Department of English (1971, 1985)Guitou Knoop1954Bust, Pulitzer Prize
Gerald EarlyBlackMaleNMerle Kling Professor of Modern Letters, Chair of the Department of African and African-American Studies, Award-winning Essayist and Cultural Critic Jamie Adams2007Star on the St. Louis Walk of Fame 
Stanley ElkinWhiteMaleNProfessor of English and Writing, Former Merle Kling Professor of Modern LettersPatrick Schuchard1991Two-time winner of the National Book Critics Circle Award (1992, 1995), star on the St. Louis Walk of Fame
Ralph Morrow (photo)WhiteMaleYProfessor of History, Former University administratorN/ANAFormer Chair of the History Department, Dean of the Graduate School, Provost, and University Historian. Gift was given in his memory by family. Study room named for him in Olin Library. 
William GassWhiteMaleNDavid May Distinguished University Professor Emeritus, writerMarion Miller1995Founded the Center for Humanities in 1990. Three-time National Book Critics Circle Award winner in 1978, 1996, and 2003. Coined the term "metafiction" in his 1970 essay "Philosophy and the Form of Fiction. 
Donald FinkelWhiteMaleNPoet-in-residenceBarry Schactman1998Helped form the Writing Program along with wife Constance Urdang
J. H. HexterWhiteMaleNProfessor of History (1957-1964), returned in 1990Anne Green1990Founded the Center for the History of Freedom in 1990, became the John M. Olin Distinguished University Professor of the History of Freedom. Endowed Professorship is named for him -- currently held by Professor Jean Allman. 
Karl D. UmrathWhiteMaleYDonorDorothy Quest1959Umrath and his wife collectively gave $1.5 million to the University, the former dorm Rubelmann was named in honor of his sister, Maurie Rubelmann. 
Helen D. UmrathWhiteFemaleYDonorDorothy Quest1959Umrath (nèe Rubelmann) and her husband, Karl Umrath, collectively donated $1.5 million to the University over their lifetime. She is the namesake of Umrath House, and her sister -- Maurie Rubelmann -- is the namesake of former Rubelmann House. 
Edna Fischel GellhornWhiteFemaleNActivistJ. Scott MacNutt1940Founder and vice-president of the National League of Women Voters. Active in the women's suffrage movement and close with Eleanor Roosevelt. Fought to enact the Missouri minimum wage law and was an advocate for fair labor & employment conditions, Served on numerous committees and associations in St. Louis that helped support these causes. Her friends donated money for an endowed professorship named in her honor. Married to Dr. George Gellhorn.
Scott RudolphWhiteMaleYMember of the Board of TrusteesGilbert Early2012Rudolph and his wife, Pyong, are longtime supporters of the University and are the parents of two WU alumni. Has a professorship named in his honor, and is the namesake of Rudolph Hall. Sits on the Parents Council, National Entrepreneur Council, and Global Engagement Committee. 
George E KassabaumWhiteMaleNAlumnus H R Duhme?Commemorated in the form of a portrait bust. President of the American Institute of Architects and the William Greenleaf Eliot society, former WU trustee, founder of prominent architectural firm Hellmuth Obata & Kassabaum, Inc (co-founders were also WU alumni)
Constantine (dinos) e MichaelidesWhiteMaleNProfessor Emeritus, Former Dean of the School of ArchitectureGilbert Early1993In 1983, elected a Fellow of the American Institute of Architects -- one of the highest honors that can be bestowed upon an architect 
Norman G MooreWhiteMaleYAlumnusGilbert Early1995Received a bachelor's degree in architecture. Recipient of the Distinguished Alumni Award in 1993 and Robert S. Brookings Award in 1999. 
Earl E. and Myrtle E. WalkerWhiteMale and Female (couple)YDonor W Patrick Shuchard2006CEO (Earl) and Vice President (Myrtle) of Carr Lane Manufacturing Co, namesakes of Walker Hall, established an endowed professorship in mechanical engineering in 1998, won the Robert S. Brookings Award in 1999, established the Walker Scholarship in the School of Art in 2001. In 2002, Earl Walker received an honorary Doctorate of Science degree. 
Mildred Lane KemperWhiteFemaleYDonorYing-He Liu2006Kemper's family donated to name the art museum in her honor. Kemper was a longtime patron of the arts and resident of Kansas City, Missouri. She was also an alumnae and former trustee of Wellesley College. 
Sam and Marilyn FoxWhiteMale and Female (couple)YesDonorYing-He Liu2006The Fox's have given over $22 million to the University. Sam Fox is an alumnus (BU '51) and lifetime and lifetime member of the board of trustees. He is the chairman and CEO of Harbour Group ltd. He is also the Chairman of the St. Louis area Council Boy Scouts of America, Chairman of the United Way of Greater St. Louis campaign, and President of the board of commissioners of the St. Louis Art Museum. Marilyn Fox was the first female President of the Jewish Community Center of St. Louis. She has won numerous awards for her philanthropy and sits on the board of several organizations in St. Louis. Both received an honorary doctorate of public service from SLU in 2000. Namesakes of the School of Art and Architecture. 
Uncas A WhitakerWhiteMaleYesDonorDonne Lee2003CEO of AMP, Inc. and namesake of the Whitaker foundation. Upon his death, the Whitaker Foundation provided two grants to the University which helped construct Whitaker Hall and attract top-tier faculty and graduate talent. 
Frank C.P. YinAsianMaleNoStephen F. and Camilla T. Brauer Distinguished Professor of Biomedical Engineering, department chair from 1997-2013Katherine Meredith2013Credited with building and strengthening the department of biomedical engineering. Internationally recognized for his contributions to biomechanics and cardiovascular research
Preston M GreenWhiteMaleYesAlumnus, DonorGilbert Early2011Received his bachelor's in electrical engineering in 1936. Serves as the President and Chairman of southwest steel supply co. Namesake of Green Hall
Stephen F. and Camilla T. BrauerWhiteMale and Female (couple)YesDonor Gilbert Early2010Stephen is the former chair of the Board of Trustees. He is a member of the School of Engineering and Applied Science National Council, president of Hunter Engineering Company, former United States Ambassador to Belgium (2001-2003), member of St. Louis civic progress, director of Ameren Corporation, past president of the board of the Missouri botanical garden (him). Camilla is the Vice Chair of the United Way of Greater St. Louis, program chair of the WGE society, founding member of Danforth Circle committee, and was the top volunteer fundraiser in US of fundraising executives in 1996. Both are namesakes of Brauer Hall. 
Lee HunterWhiteMaleNoHonorary alumnus, trustee emeritus, served on washu board of trustees from 1982-86, founder of Hunter Engineering company, posthumously imductef into automotive hall of fame in 1992Gilbert early?Part of Brauer gift was in his honor
Rick and Betty RyckmanWhiteMale and Female (couple)NoA.P. Greensfelder Professor of Engineering Mills1998Commemorated in a photograph. Rick helped build a top program in environmental engineering at the university in the mid 1950s.
Thomas and Jennifer HillmanWhiteMale and Female (couple)YesDonor, AlumniN/A2015Commemorated in a photograph. Namesakes of Hillman Hall. Both Thomas (BA '78) and Jennifer (BFA '79) are alumni of the University. Thomas is the former founder and managing partner of FTL Capital Partners. Jennifer is a former owner of a sales promotion and advertising agency. Thomas is a member of the board of trustees while Jennifer is on the University's National Council for Undergraduate Experience. 
Alvin GoldfarbWhiteMaleYesDonorUnsure1998?Goldfarb and his wife (Jeannette Rudman Goldfarb - Brown School Graduate) were longtime supporters of business and humanities at the University. Founded the Scholars in Business Program at the Olin Business School. Provided a generous gift that helped construct Goldfarb Hall (namesake). The St. Louis Hillel Center was also named in their honor. 
George Warren BrownWhiteMaleYesDonor, Former member of the Board of DirectorsUnsure1937Established the first successful wholesale shoe manufacturing company in STL, brought $500k in assets to the University to fund the School of Social Work
Bettie Bofinger BrownWhiteFemaleYesDonorUnsure1937Established the School of Social Work in memoriam to her husband, George Warren Brown
Robert S. BrookingsWhiteMaleYesServed as the President of the Board of Trustees for 33 yearsRichard Emile Miller1905 or 1928Donated $200k to WU to construct an administrative building (Brookings Hall). Founder of the Brookings Institute. 
William Greenleaf Eliot, Sr.WhiteMaleNoFormer Chancellor of WUJames Reid Lambdin1969Painted in 1853, gifted in memory of William Eliot Smith from his family in 1969. Co-founded Washington University (then known as Eliot Seminary) in 1853 with Wayman Crow. Organized the first fundraising campaign and built the University's endowment. Served as the first President in 1854 and was named the third Chancellor in 1871. 
Bob and Julie SkandalarisWhiteMale and Female (couple)YesDonorN/AUnsureCommemorated in a photograph. Parents of an alumnae. Established the Skandalaris Entrepreneurship Program in 2001 and the Skandalaris Center for Entrepreneurial Studies in 2003. In 2008, established the Skandalaris Entrepreneurial Summer Internship Program. Bob is the chairman and CEO of Quantum Ventures of Michigan, LLC. Julie has served in leadership roles at the Detroit Country Day School and is engaged in philanthropic initiatives. 
Andrew H. and Ann Rubenstein TischWhiteMale and Female (couple)YesDonor, AlumniUnsureUnsurePhotograph. Ann is an alumnae (BA '76) of the University and a longtime member of the Board of Trustees. Former broadcast journalist for several outlets, including NBC Network News. She is the founder and president of the Young Women's Leadership Network, which creates and manages all-girls inner-city public schools. She is also the founder of the CollegeBound Initiative. Andrew is co-chairman of the board and chairman of the executive committee of Loews Corporation. He is a Cornell graduate and has served on the board for its medical school, business school, and college. 
James E. McLeodBlackMaleNProfessor, University AdministratorUnsureUnsureDean McLeod arrived at the University as an assistant professor of German. He held numerous administrative positions including: assistant dean of the Graduate School (1974-77), assistant to Chancellor Danforth (1977-1987), director of the program (now department) of African and African-American Studies (1987-1992), vice chancellor for students and dean of the College of Arts and Sciences (1992-2011). McLeod also served as the dean of the John B. Ervin Scholars Program. McLeod Way on the South 40 and the McLeod Conference Room in Cupples II is also named in his honor. McLeod won numerous awards for his service. 
Isadore Edward (I.E.) MillstoneWhiteMaleYesDonor, Life Trustee, AlumnusUnsureUnsureWall relief. Millstone is a St. Louis native who graduated from the University in 1927 with a degree in engineering. He founded Millstone Construction, Inc., and was the president of K & M Investors. Millstone is a longtime donor to the University. The Millstone Pool in the Athletic Complex is also named in his honor, as is Millstone Lounge in the DUC. 
William and Elizabeth Gray DanforthWhiteMale and Female (couple)NoChancellor EmeritusUnsure2008The Danforth Foundation made a gift in their honor to build the Danforth University Center. William initially joined the University as a professor at the Medical School. Danforth also served as vice chancellor under Chancellor Thomas Eliot before becoming 13th Chancellor in 1971. He was named Chancellor Emeritus in 1999. 
John and Stephanie Brooks DainsWhiteMale and Female (couple)YDonor, AlumniUnsureUnsurePhotograph. Both John (BSBA '68) and Stephanie (AB '69) are alumni of the University. They endowed the Dains Scholarship in the Olin School in 2010, and established the Dains Sr. Scholarship to assist students from Arkansas. The couple has donated upwards of $5 million to the University. The dining hall inside of the DUC is named in their honor. 
John E. SimonWhiteMaleYDonorUnsure1986?He is the namesake of Simon Hall. Simon served as the General Partner of Simon and Co. Investment Company. Simon established an endowed professorships and has donated funds to other areas of the University. 
Al KopolowWhiteMaleYDonorUnsureUnsureNamesake of the Kopolow Business Library. 
John M. OlinWhiteMaleYDonor, Fmr. Trustee, Western Cartridge Company, Chairman of Olin Corporation 1988$1 million donation used for construction of Olin Library of which he is the namesake. Olin is also the namesake of the Business School. He is the former President of Olin Industries and chairman of Olin Mathieson Chemical Corporation.
Harry and Susan SeigleWhiteMale and Female (couple)YDonorUnsure2008This building is the first academic building to be named after an alumnus living outside of St. Louis. Harry Seigle received his bachelor's degree in in 1968. The Seigles made a $10 million commitment to construct the building. Harry has served in numerous positions, including as a trustee. Numerous other spaces and funds on campus are also named for the Seigles. He founded several lumber businesses and material supplier companies. 
Gary M. SumersWhiteMaleYDonor, AlumnusN/A2016Photograph. Sumers received his bachelor's degree from the University in 1975 Phi Beta Kappa. Sumers is COO and Senior Managing Director of The Blackstone Group. He is also a member of the Board of Trustees and has established numerous in scholarships in memory of his mother, Joan. 
Art and Marge McWilliamsWhiteMale and Female (couple)YDonors, AlumniN/AN/APhotograph. Both are St. Louis natives. Art received his BSBA degree from the University. They are longtime supporters of WU athletics and are scholarship sponsors at the Olin Business School. Art serves on the University's W Club Executive Committee. 
Paul TietjensWhiteMaleNPianist and Composer known for writing the music for the original stage production of The Wizard of Oz in 1902Unsure1975Otto Tietjens included a bequest for this building in his will. The Tietjens Memorial Music Studio was built in 1974
Avis BlewettWhiteFemaleYChurch organist, organ instructor at Vassar College, and opened her studio in St. LouisUnsure1946?Gift allowed WU to repurchase the fmr. Chancellor's home and turn it into a building to house the Music Department. Also donated the church organ inside of Graham Chapel.
Benjamin Blewett?WhiteMaleYDonor, Alumnus, Fmr. Superintendent of STL Public SchoolsUnsure1946?Donated part of his estate to WU after his death. Blewett received his bachelor's and master's degrees from the University in 1876 and 1878, respectively. He was a teacher and eventually served as the Superintendent of St. Louis Public Schools. He also donated $50,000 to establish the Jessie Parsons Blewett Fund to support teacher education. 
Roger WestonWhiteMaleYDonor, AlumnusUnsureUnsureWeston is an alumnus of the University, graduating with his MBA in 1967. He served as the founder and chairman of GreatBanc, Inc. His support allowed the Weston Career Center to be established in the 1980s. He is a member of Olin's National Council. 
John M. OlinWhiteMaleYDonorUnsureUnsureOlin School of Business is named in his honor. Olin served on the Board of Trustees for nearly 40 years, serving until his death in 1982. He personally provided nearly $6 million in funding, and the Olin Foundation has given at least $18 million. The Olin Library is also named in his honor. 
Patrick McGinnisWhiteMaleYDonor, AlumnusUnsureUnsureFormer CEO of Nestle Purina Petcare for the Americas. Earned his MBA from Washington University in 1972. Endowed a professorship in marketing in 2002. Former board member. Won two distinguished alumni awards in 1993 and 1999, respectively. 
Julian EdisonWhiteMaleYDonorUnsureUnsureChairman of his family's company --- Edison Shoe Company. Edison helped found the Associates of St. Louis Libraries. Avid reader and collector of books. The Olin Library Special Collections is named in his honor.
Jack and Debbie ThomasWhiteMale and FemaleYDonorN/A2018Photograph. The Thomas Gallery, featuring museum-quality exhibit spaces, in Olin Library is named in their honor. Endowed a lecture series to promote the discussion of library and technology-related topic. Jack is a member of the Board of Trustees and is the chairman of WU Libraries' National Council. 
Risa Zwerling WrightonWhiteWomanNAlumnae, Wife of Chancellor WrightonUnsure2018Gift was made in her honor to name Risa's Landing -- a third floor reading room -- in her name. Wrighton earned her master's in business administration from the University in 1989 and engages actively in the University community. 
Maxine Clark and Bob FoxWhiteMale and FemaleYDonorsUnsureUnsureThe policy institute and forum in Hillman Hall at the Brown School are named in their honor, following a $7.5 million donation They also provided an additional $540,000 to fund a cohort of Civic Scholars.. Bob and Maxine are co-founding donors of Teach For America-St. Louis and KIPP charter schools in the St. Louis area. Clark is the founder of Build-A-Bear Workshops and holds several positions in University leadership, including serving as a trustee. Fox is the owner and chief executive of NewSpace, Inc. and founded Casa de Salud. 
Peggy NewmanWhiteWomanYDonorUnsureUnsureAssociated with a Newman Foundation gift that named three spaces in the DUC (Edison Courtyard, Ibby's, Orchid Room)
Lucy and Stanley LopataWhiteMale and FemaleYDonor, AlumniUnsure1981Stanley graduated from Washington University in 1935. Both Lucy and Stanley co-founded Carboline Corporation. Several spaces on the Danforth Campus are named in their honor, including Lopata Hall, Lopata Plaze, and Lopata Courtyard in Simon Hall. The Lopatas were longtime supporters of the School of Engineering. 
Lucy and Stanley LopataWhiteMale and FemaleYDonor, AlumniUnsure2001Stanley graduated from Washington University in 1935. Both Lucy and Stanley co-founded Carboline Corporation. Several spaces on the Danforth Campus are named in their honor, including Lopata Hall, Lopata Plaze, and Lopata Courtyard in Simon Hall. 
James S. McDonnellWhiteMaleYDonorUnsure1993Served in the U.S. Army Air Corps Reserve and was one of the first men to create the packed-parachute jumps. Founded his own aircraft company in St. Louis and remained a world leader in the production of commercial and military aircrafts. McDonnell established a professorship in 1964 and the McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences in 1975. McDonnell Hall was dedicated in his honor in 1993. 
Nathan DardickWhiteMaleUnsureAlumnusUnsure2006Dardick graduated from the University in 1971 with a bachelor's degree. As a student, he was an RA and dorm president for Eliot Hall. He served as a member of the executive committee of the University's Parent Council. Dardick was named in his honor. 
John C. DanforthWhiteMaleNFormer Senator and AmbassadorUnsureUnsureDanforth Foundation provided a gift to the University in 2009 to establish the Danforth Center for Religion and Politics named in John's honor. John is a former Senator from Missouri and former U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations. He is a member of the center's National Advisory Board and has written several books on religion and politics. 
Milda Balch FemaleYAlumnaeUnsureUnsure 
Sayde G. EdisonWhiteFemaleYDonorUnsure1973Edison was the primary donor for Edison Theatre's construction. She made the gift in honor of her husband and son, Samuel B. and Charles B. Edison. 
Samuel B. EdisonWhiteMaleNNamesake of Edison TheatreUnsure1973Wife, Sayde Edison, made a gift in honor of him and their son, Charles, that allowed the University to construct Edison Theatre. Samuel founded the Edison Shoe Company with his brothers in 1922. The company went public in 1929 and moved to St. Louis. 
Angel and Paul HarveyWhiteMale and Female (couple)YesDonor, AlumniUnsureUnsureBoth Angela and Paul are the namesakes of the Harvey Media Center. Angela is an alumnae of the University. She received a bachelor's and master's degree in English, along with an honorary doctor of humanities degree in 1998. Paul is known for his successful career in broadcasting. He hosted "News and Comment," a successful show on ABC Radio Network. Paul is a five-time Marconi Radio Award winner, and was inducted into the National Radio Hall of Fame in 1990. Paul was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2005, the nation's highest civilian honor. 
William McMillanWhiteMaleYDonor UnsureUnsureMcMillan Hall was named in honor of William by his wife Eliza P. McMillan. He established several businesses, including Missouri Car & Foundry Company. William and his wife donated $100,000 to the Mary Institute, a school formerly run by Washington University. 
Betty McCloskey ComptonWhiteFemaleNWife of former Chancellor Arthur Holly ComptonUnsureUnsure

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